The change of shape when a straight or curved member is so loaded as to cause a change in the radius of curvature. The member is not necessarily horizontal, and may be vertical, or at any angle to the vertical. The amount of bending depends upon the dimensions and material of the member, and the magnitude of the bending moment , i.e. the force and its leverage. Bending, caused by transverse loading , is not to be confused with buckling , caused by axial loading.
Bending is peculiar to beams, and the variation in bending effect, or "moment", determines the section at the different points along a beam. Although mostly horizontal, a beam can be at any angle. A telegraph pole is a beam, as it carries transvers loading.